Computers different price levels serve different purposes. Some models
Del oriented academic institutions and others in commerce. Involved
Prompted Beysika for the development of various personal computers, I find
matic, that the transfer of software from one computer to the other
hand requires a lot of work. This applies even in cases where
programs written in a standard language, such Kobole or Fortrane.
Scalable Architecture completely changed the computer industry.
System/360 enjoyed tremendous success, and within thirty years
IBM maintained a strong position in the production meynfreymov. Customers decentralization
Lali large investments in the 360 series, confident that their costs
and training programs will not be lost. If it was needed More
a powerful than the computer they bought it from IBM, and he worked with the same
the operating system and have the same architecture.
Scalable System Architecture / Z60 and its successor System/370 stolen
la games from many existing and potential competitors IBM.
But in 1977, DEC has implemented its own platform with masshtabirue-
me-VAX architecture. VAX family has been widely represented: from nas-
tolnyh computers to meynfreymov. These systems have provided DEC is the same as that
System/360 of IBM. DEC went on the market leaders in the mini.
In 1970, Eugene Amdal (Eugene Amdahl), IBM Senior Engineer, stre-
getting to realize their ideas, a new company founded. It was the supply
equipment not only for working with the same operating system and
software as IBM, but also through superior-recognition
meneniyu new technology-at a price comparable IBM system. Shortly firms
Control Data, Hitachi and Itel also started offering meynfreymy compatible
avoidable with IBM. By the mid-seventies the importance of compatibility with the Z60 series
became evident. Success meynfreymov only those producers whose
equipment worked with operating systems of IBM.
Before the 360 series architecture manufacturers deliberately
computer models inconsistent with other similar companies, victims
Because sought to link it to his client equipment-something
the computers would shift to other brands costly "defector" money.
Once a customer tied to a machine, a manufacturer of farm
toval him (or her) how to use the program - change program
east security has been possible, but very difficult. Amdal and others which had
IPOs this arbitrariness. Therefore, interoperability, which forced to come to market
NSC, for the industry of personal computers and serves as a critical example
at the same time, a lesson for the future. It should be remembered, and the current sozdate-
whether the information superhighway. Customers prefer those systems that
give them the freedom to choose the suppliers of hardware and software.
When all these events took place, I went to school and was just beginning
experiment with computers. At Harvard, I received in autumn 1973 years
yes. It is no secret that in college all drawn to the other friend
largely, and the more progulivaesh, so you feel cooler. There were exceptions
ing, and I did. From the course, I fundamentally allows most of deputy
taking and feverishly preparing to set-off at the end of the semester. This has become even
games. You, too, because she is familiar? Get an assessment increase, and time
spend some space? Leisure I held mainly for poker games, which
thorium attracted me in its own way. In poker player gathers infor Obrivki
mation - who makes sure bet that the maps show how pro -
tivnik know how to bluff, and then, down two and two, sets up his
the plan of action. In processing such information, I was always at altitude.
The experience of playing poker (and won money) has helped me in business, but
all habit postponed to tomorrow-quite the contrary. But then I know
thought not. I am gratified that my new friend, Steve Balmera, mathematics
tion with a senior rate, the same weakness. Since I met him back in first
the first year in college: We lived in one room in the dormitory
Currier House. Steve and I were totally different way of life, but both struggling
how were you can spend less time to earn higher
evaluation. Steve, a man irrepressible energy was very sociable. Paltry decentralization
it operates entirely absorbed. By the end of the second course he has been less
football Manager, manager of advertising and the Harvard Crimson
president literary magazine. He also was a member of the public
the club, the equivalent of Harvard student fraternity.
And he and I hardly pay attention to the classes and exams before
long days zubrili textbooks. Once we proshtudirovali course
Economics calculated on graduates, "Business 2010". Professor different
decided to surrender its external. Naturally, we then Steve entire semester
most laboratories and other cases not remembered about this course until last
it minute. A week before the exam, we gunners like crazy for textbooks
and finally received the evaluation A.
But later, when we founded Microsoft with Paul, I found
lived that down is not the best style of management company. Among the first
new Microsoft customers were Japanese, such Punctual that in the minute
behind schedule to send someone to watch us. Of course,
all understand that the "observer" nothing will not help us, but they still
prosizhivat forced him in our office for 18 hours. Serious guys!
It is to ask: "Why change dates? We need to know why.
Then we will fix it, which caused the delay. "I still remember how
we had to, when we turning with some projects. Gradually,
ispravilis ourselves. The truth, and we sometimes postpone some
the draft, but it happens far less frequently than might, so thank you
Microsoft began its operations in 1975, in Albuquerque (State
New Mexico), because there is MITS. MITS is the most com -
Spain, whose team set a personal computer Altair 8800 kraso-
Luckily on the cover of Popular Electronics magazine. We worked together since
it was the first company, which sells low-cost public
personal computers. By 1977, in this business engaged Apple,
Commodore and Radio Shack. We supplied Beysik for most vypuskav-
peak then personal computers. At that time, the program ingre-
dient was extremely important because allowed to write their Beysike
the program, and not spent on ready.
Sale Beysika was one of my many responsibilities. In
During the first three years of most other specialists in Microsoft meets
redotochilos solely on the technical work, and I assumed basis
ship load sales, marketing and financial matters, however,
Programming is also involved. In fact, I barely twenty jail, and
trade is not really attracted me.
The strategy was aimed at Microsoft is to computer companies
Radio Shack's like obtaining licenses for the supply of our program
leg ensure, together with its personal computers (at the Radio
Shack, for instance, it was the TRS-80), paying a certain percentage of us. Reasons
for, we are forced to go on such a path-piracy.
Initially, sales Beysika for "Altairov was much lower than
we expected him knowing widespread. I published an open
Toe letter, which called on all users of personal computers
ditch stop steal our software, otherwise we will not be able
to earn money for the creation of new programs. "For me, there is nothing priyat-
her than hire a dozen programmers and flooding the market good progress
rammami, "I wrote. little But my arguments persuaded whom, it seems, Beysik
all liked, they enjoyed, but it preferred to "loan" from a friend
Fortunately, today most users aware that the program
products protected by copyright. But pirated copy
programs are still major problem. Therefore, the United States seek
Governments are assessed from other countries to take more effective laws
copyright (or compliance) for books, movies, computers
pakt-diski and software products. We must take maximum legislature
measures to future highway does not become a haven for pirates.
The purpose of Microsoft was to create and deliver programming
Intermediate support to the majority of personal computers, no involvement
directly to the development or sale of their hardware.
Microsoft sells licenses for software products at extremely low
prices par excellence in their search for sales. We have adapted our languages
programming is the same for each Gold-machine and instantly respond
financed any request for equipment manufacturers. We do not want to give
another cause them to seek a partner. We have sought to ensure that the program